Sunday, June 19, 2011

A Hard Look at the Book of Acts (2) Roman Background

Here's a brief Roman chronology for the same period as the book of Acts, taken from H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero (5th ed. 1982):

30 A.D.  Publications  of the History of Velleius Paterculus
31 Tiberius, consul v, with Sejanus. Gaius recieves toga virilius.   Sejanus put to death. Marco appointed Praetorian Prefect
33 Death of Agrippaina on island of Pandateria. Gaius quaestor. Financial difficulties in Rome. Possible date for the Crucifixion of Christ.

34  Palestinian Tetrarchy of Philip incorporated into Syria
36 Pontius Pilate sent to Rome by L. Vitellius govenor of Syria
37 Death of Tiberius Caesar (16 march)  Accession of Gaius ('Caligula') he is consul with Claudius. Commagene re-established as a client kingdom
38 Death  and deification of Drusilla. Jewish disturbances in Alexandria. Polemo II receives Pontus and Cotys Armenia Minor
39 Gaius goes to the Rhine. Julia and Agrippina exiled
40  Gaius expedition to the Channel, returns to Rome. Ptolemy of Mauretania murdered in Rome, revolt  in Mauretania. Jewish embassy from Alexandria to Rome.  Agrippa I receives kingdom of Antipas. Judaea restless
41  Gaius murdered (24 Jan) Claudius made emperor. The Chauci defeated. Claudius settles Alexandrian trouble. Agrippa I receives Judaea and Samaria. Exile of Seneca to Corsica
42 Revolt of Scribonianus in Dalmatia: his suicide. Mauretania organized as two provinces
43 Expedition to Britain.   Lycia  made an imperial province
44 Claudius' triumph over Britain.  Achaea and Maccedonia transferred to Senate. Death of Herod Agrippa I.   Judaea reverts to provincial status
46 Thrace made a province
47 Triumph of Aulus Plautius for conquest of Britain. Claudius and L. Vitellius censors. Ludi Saeculares. Corbulo campaigns against Frisii. Ostorius Scapula in Britain
48 Messalina killed
49 Seneca recalled from Corsica and made praetor  and Nero's tutor
50 Claudius adopts Nero as Guardian for Britannicus.  Agrippa II rules in Chalcis
51 Burrus made Praetorian prefect, Vespasian consul. Caratactus defeated in Wales Vologeses king of Parthia (or in52) Gallio proconsul in Achaea (51-52) 
53 Nero  marries  Octavia . Parthians occupy Armenia and Tiridates recovers the throne
54 Death of Claudius. Accession of Nero. Caldius deified
55 Britannicus poisoned. Pallus dismissed . Corbulo goes to the East
56 Praefecti  aerarii replace quaestores aerrarii
57 Nero orders senators and knights to take part in Games
58 Nero refuses  perpetual consulship. Corbulo captures  Artaxata
59 Nero Murders Agrippina: establishes Greek Games. Cobulo takes Tigranocerta
60 Neronia establishes Corulo settles Armenia governor of Syria.  Festus succeeds Felix as governor of Judaea
61 Revolt  of Boudicca and Iceni in Britain
62 Death  of Burras. Tigellinus  made  Praetorian Prefect.  Seneca disgraced. Nero divorces  Octavia and marries Poppaea. Octavia murdered. Paetus surrenders to the Parthians at Rhandeia
64 Great fire at Rome.  Persecution of the Christians. Domus Aurea begun. Mission to Ethiopia. Cottian Alps  made a province (64-65) Pontus incorporated into  Galatia
65 Conspiracy  of Piso. Suicides of Seneca ans Lucan. Death of Poppaea.  Musonius Rufus exiled
66 Nero crowns Tiridates king of Armenia in Rome and goes to Greece. Thrasea Paetus condemned. Conspiracy of Vinicius  at  Beneventum. Nero marries Statilia Messalina. Temple of Janus  closed. Suicide of Petronius Rebellion in Palestine.
67 Nero at Corinthian canal. Corbulo ordered to commit suicide.  Vespasian in command in Judaea: Josephus surrenders to him
68 Nero returns  to Italy. Death of Nero (6 June) Galba, accepted  by Senate and Praetorians, enters Rome (autumn) Verginius Rufus opposes Vindex's rebellion in Gaul.  Defeat and death of Vindex. Vespasian attacks Jerusalem
69  After the death of Galba and brief reigns of Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian becomes emperor  and reaches Rome in summer of 70
70  Jerusalem sieged and burned by Titus, temple destroyed.

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