In 1961 a researcher called Huan Oto left hydrogen cyanide and ammonia
to stew in an aqeous solution in his laboratory under conditions
very similar to those that prevailed on the primordial earth.
Left alone the solution produced adenine, one of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA.
The author praises the formation of Adenine, but leaves out mention of the crippling corollary:
THE OTHER THREE NUCLEOTIDE BASES COULD NOT BE SYNTHESIZED IN THE SAME ENVIRONMENT.
Why? Because they would have to be formed in quite different conditions.
This means the four 'horsemen' of the RNA apocalypse could never be in the same room long enough to join together...
He glosses over this glaring catastrophic failure (i.e., lack of parts for the synthesis of an RNA chain), and skips to another absurdity:
To make a single complete nucleotide these bases need to gain a sugar called Ribose, and a group of phosphates.
Note that the only mechanism available is raw environmental chemistry;
no MITOCHONDRIA or other partial cell-structures (i.e., factories) are yet in existence!
We have adenine, now magically joining with ribose sugar!
Where did it come from? Its not found floating around volcanoes or lightning storms. Worse, there are five different versions of Ribose, most unusable for life. Yet worse, only the beta-ribopyranose form will predominate in aqueous solution. Finally, its the d-ribose order that is needed (this refers to the chirality stereo-chemical 3-d arrangement of the carbon atom).
Remember, out in the lightning, ANYTHING could hook up to our Adenine molecule. We can only rely upon simple chemistry, and the availability of nearby chemically active agents, of which there are probably millions in an uncontrolled volcanic/lightning-storm earth.
But somehow, we luck out on the exact d-ribose that we need, coming from heaven! The author says we don't need God, but for this critical step alone we probably do!
Now, because we're in for a penny, in for a pound, we need yet another miracle! the right phosphate group hooks up next, in the right orientation and order. We have:
In the living organism however, this process of linking the pieces in the right order takes place under an extremely controlled environment.
Out here in lightning-land, we must rely upon impossible odds of both formation, preservation, and critical timing for assembly, all with ordinary raw random chemistry in an insane invironment of wild temperature fluctuations and collisions of millions of atoms and molecules at all speeds and angles.
|"Biochemists think they know how the phosphate group formed.|
|They are now trying to find out how the ribose is attached."|